Last updated February 7, 2019
Ph. D. in
Areas of Specialization:
Formal and informal Epistemology: Foundationalism; internalism/externalism controversies; metaepistemology; Bayesian inference and confirmation theory; testimony; Bayesian coherentism; philosophy of religion; intersection of epistemology with biblical studies
English Literature: Renaissance non-dramatic literature; Edmund Spenser
Hidden in Plain View: Undesigned Coincidences in the Gospels and Acts. DeWard Publishing, 2017.
Internalism and Epistemology: The Architecture of Reason. With Timothy McGrew. A book-length treatment of metaepistemology from a foundationalist, internalist standpoint. Routledge, 2007.
“Finessing Independent Attestation: A Study in Interdisciplinary Biblical Criticism,” forthcoming (2019), accepted July 13, 2018 in Themelios.
“Undesigned Coincidences and Coherence for an Hypothesis,” Erkenntnis, On-Line First, August 6, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10670-018-0050-4 Author’s accepted manuscript version archived here.
“Of Generic Gods and Generic Men: The Limits of Armchair Philosophy of Religion.” The Journal of Analytic Theism 6 (2018):183-203 (Available as open source on-line: https://doi.org/10.12978/jat.2018-6.112400120222a)
“The World, the Deceiver, and The Face in the Frost,” Quaestiones Disputatae, 7:2 (2017, volume actually appeared in print fall, 2018), 112-146. Draft version archived by permission here.
“Bayes’ Theorem,” entry in Dictionary of Christianity and Science. Edited by Paul Copan and Trevor Longman III. Zondervan, 2017
“Accounting for Dependence: Relative Consilience as a Correction Factor in Cumulative Case Arguments,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy. 95:3 (2017), 560-572, DOI 10.1080/00048402.2016.1219753.
“Bayes Factors All the Way: Toward a New View of Coherence and Truth,” Theoria (2016) 82:329-350. DOI 10.1111/theo.12102.
“Evidential Diversity and the Negation of H: A Probabilistic Account of the Value of Varied Evidence,” Ergo 3:10 (2016), Open access. Available here.
“Four (Or So) New Fine-Tuning Arguments,” European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 8:2 (Summer, 2016):85-106.
“Why Bayesian Coherentism Isn't Coherentism,” European Journal of Analytic Philosophy, Vol. 11:1 (2015):37-55, published online on May 10, 2016. Available here.
“Before the Mountains Were Brought Forth: A Defense of Divine Timelessness,”Christendom Review 6:1 (summer 2014).
“On Not Counting the Cost: Ad Hocness and Disconfirmation,” Acta Analytica 29 (2014):491-505. DOI 10.1007/s12136-014-0225-9.
“Jeffrey Conditioning, Rigidity, and the Defeasible Red Jelly Bean,” Philosophical Studies (2014) 168:569-82. Published online May 17, 2013, via On-Line First. DOI # 10.1007/s11098-013-0145-3. Per copyright agreement with Philosophical Studies, I am permitted to link and archive an author-prepared version of the article here.
“Probabilistic Issues Concerning Jesus of Nazareth and Messianic Death Prophecies,” Philosophia Christi 15:3 (2013), pp. 311-28.
“Tall Tales and Testimony to The Miraculous,” European Journal of Analytic Philosophy. 8.2 (2012):39-55.
“Historical Inquiry,” In The Routledge Companion to Theism, ed. Victoria Harrison, Stewart Goetz, and Charles Taliaferro. (New York: Routledge. Official publication date on copyright page, 2013; actually became available fall 2012), pp. 281-293.
“The Reliability of Witnesses and
Testimony to the Miraculous.” With Timothy McGrew. In Probability in the Philosophy of Religion, ed. Jake Chandler and
Victoria Harrison (
“Probability Kinematics and Probability Dynamics,” Journal of Philosophical Research. 35 (2010):89-105.
from Miracles: A Cumulative Case for the Resurrection of Jesus of
“The Irrational Faith of the Naked Public Square,” The Christendom Review 1:1 (December, 2008) (Accessed 12/05/08)
“Foundationalism, Probability, and Mutual Support,” With Timothy McGrew, Erkenntnis 68 (2008):55-77.
“On the Historical Argument: A Rejoinder to Plantinga,” With Timothy McGrew, Philosophia Christi 8 (2006):23-38.
“Likelihoods, Multiple Universes, and Epistemic Context.” Philosophia Christi 7 (2005): 475-81.
“A Response to Robin Collins and Alexander R. Pruss.” With Timothy McGrew. Philosophia Christi 7 (2005): 425-43.
“Testability, Likelihoods, and Design.” Philo 7:1 (Spring-Summer 2004):5-21.
“Foundationalism,” entry in on-line ISCID Encyclopedia of Science and Philosophy, June, 2003.
“Agency and the Metalottery Fallacy.” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80:4 (December, 2002):440-464.
and the Fine Tuning Argument: A Sceptical View.” With Timothy McGrew and Eric
Vestrup. Mind 110 (October, 2001): 1027-37. Anthologized in God and Design, ed. Neil A. Manson (
“What's Wrong with Epistemic Circularity.” With Timothy McGrew. Dialogue 39 (2000): 219-39.
“Blaming the Designer.” Origins and Design 20:1 (Spring 2000): 9-10.
“Foundationalism, Transitivity and Confirmation.” With Timothy McGrew. Journal of Philosophical Research 25 (2000): 47-66.
“Blaming the Handyman.” Origins and Design 19:2 (Winter 1999): 8.
“Psychology for Armchair Philosophers.” With Timothy McGrew. Idealistic Studies 28 (1998): 147-57.
“Internalism and the Collapse of the Gettier Problem.” With Timothy McGrew. Journal of Philosophical Research 23 (1998): 239-56.
“Level Connections in Epistemology.” With Timothy McGrew. American Philosophical Quarterly 34 (1997): 85-94.
“Reason, Rhetoric, and the Price of Linguistic Revision.” Public Affairs Quarterly 11:3 (July, 1997): 255-79.
Review essay of Michael Licona, Why Are There Differences in the Gospels? Global Journal of Classic Theology, 15:3 (February, 2019)
Review of Ola Hössjer, Becoming a Christian: Combining Prior Belief, Evidence and Will, forthcoming 2018 in Philosophia Christi.
Review of William Dembski, ed., Mere Creation. Philosophia Christi (1999): 160-62.
Review of William Dembski, No Free Lunch. Science and Religion Forum Reviews, 41, June, 2003:9-12.
Reliability of Witnesses and Testimony to the Miraculous,” co-presented with
Timothy McGrew, Formal Methods in the Epistemology of Religion,
“Jeffrey Conditioning, Rigidity, and Foundationalism,” presented at the Formal Epistemology Workshop, May, 2006.
“What Grandma Can’t
Know,” presented at Society of Christian Philosophers, Pacific Division,
Probability, and Fine-tuning: Disentangling the Issues,” presented at “The
Mathematics of Fine-Tuning,” Symposium at
Machines: a Response to Elliott Sober's 'Testability'." Presented at
"Design and its Critics,"
Work presently unpublished:
“Simplicity and Zebras: Why Foundationalists Should Accept A Priori Probabilities”
Ongoing Research Areas:
New Testament studies
Applications of epistemology and probability theory to biblical studies
Bayesian analysis of testimony
Evidential independence and successive confirmation (cumulative case arguments)
Philosophy of religion